Literature
 
 

This page provides a list of relevant literature.

Furthermore you'll find a full-text download of an assessment of the effects of the 1991 Gulf War oil spill on the coastal ecosystems.

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Abdel-Moati, M.A.R. 1996. Trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the western coast of Qatar five years after the Gulf War oil spill. In: Int. Conference on the long-term environmental effects of the Gulf War, State of Kuwait, 18-20 Nov. 1996, Abstracts , p. 13.
Abuzinada, A.H. & Krupp, F. (eds.) 1994. The status of coastal and marine habitats two years after the Gulf War Oil Spill. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 166: 1-80.
Adams, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York. 317 pp.
Alam, I.A.H. 1996. The 1991 Gulf War environmental crisis: a review of initial research activities. In: Krupp, F., Abuzinada, A.H. & Nader, I.A. (eds.), A Marine Wildlife Sanctuary for the Arabian Gulf. Environmental research and conservation following the 1991 Gulf War Oil Spill. NCWCD, Riyadh and Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt a.M. p. 7-16.
Al-Mansi, A.M.A. 1992. Sea level changes in the Arabian Gulf, unpublished NCWCD Report.
Al-Sayari, S.S. & Zötl, J.G. (eds.) 1978. Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia. Springer, Wien, New York. 335 pp.
Alsharhan, A.S., Kendall, C.G.St.C. & G.L.Whittle.
1995. Holocene carbonate evaporites of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates-field trip guidebook. IGCP-349, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain. 46 pp.
Alsharhan, A.S. & Nairn, A.E.M. 1997. Sedimentary basins and petroleum geology of the Middle East. Amsterdam, 978 pp.
Al-Thukair, A.A. & Al-Hinai, K. 1993. Preliminary damage assessment of algal mats sites located in the western Gulf following the 1991 oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27:229-238.
Apel, M. & Türkay, M. 1992. The intertidal crabs and hermit crabs. Their condition after the oil spill. In: Krupp, F.(ed.), Establishment of a marine habitat and wildlife sanctuary for the Gulf Region, Final report for phase 1, Jubail, Frankfurt, 187-205.
Apel, M. (1994). Biology, ecology and taxonomy of Brachyuran and Paguridean Crustacea. In: Feltkamp, E. & Krupp, F. (eds.), Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase II. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 406-437.
Atlas, R.M. 1981. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: an environmental perspective. Microbiological Reviews 45:180-209.
Baker, J.M., Guzman, L.M., Bartlett, P.D., Little, D.I. & Wilson, C.M. 1993. Long term fate and effects of untreated thick oil deposits on salt marshes. Proc. of int. oil spill conf., Florida 1993, p. 395-399.
Barth, H.-J. 1998. Sebkhas als Ausdruck von Landschaftsdegradation im zentralen Küstentiefland der Ostprovinz Saudi-Arabiens. Regensburger Geographische Schriften, Bd. 29, Regensburg, 279 pp.
Barth, H.-J. 1999. Desertification in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments 43: 399-410.
Barth, H.-J. 2000. Inland-Sebkhas in der Ostprovinz Saudi-Arabiens: Rüumliche Veränderungen durch zunehmende Landschaftsdegradation. GeoÖko 21: 65-83.
Barth, H.-J. 2001a. Understanding of coastal fluctuation at the Arabian Gulf leading to the “lost city of Gerrha”? Palaeoecology of Africa 27: 291-303.
Barth, H.-J. 2001b. Characteristic of the wind regime north of Jubail, Saudi Arabia, based on high resolution data. Journal of Arid Environments 47: 387-402.
Barth, H.-J. & Böer, B. (eds.) 2002. Sabkha Ecosystems. Volume 1: The Arabian Peninsula and adjacent countries. Kluwer, Dordrecht. 354 pp.
Barth, H.-J. 2002a. The sabkhat of Saudi Arabia – an introduction. In: Barth, H.-J. & Böer, B. (eds.), Sabkha Ecosystems. Volume 1: The Arabian Peninsula and adjacent countries. Kluwer, Dordrecht p. 37-50.

Barth, H.-J. 2002b. The 1991 Gulf War Oil Spill - Its ecological effects and recovery rates of intertidal ecosystems at the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast - results of a 10-year monitoring period. Regensburg.

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Barth, H.K. & Niestle, A. 1992. Physical and ecological mapping. In: In: Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase I. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 28-51.
Basaham, A.S. & Al-Lihaibi, S.S. 1993. Trace elements in sediments of the western Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 27: 103-107.
Basson, P.W., Burchard, J.E. Hardy, J.H. & Price, A.R.G. 1977. Biotopes of the western Arabian Gulf. Dhahran, ARAMCO, 284 pp.
Basson, P.W., Burchard, J.E. Hardy, J.H. & Price, A.R.G. 1981. Biotopes of the western Arabian Gulf. Dhahran, ARAMCO, 2nd edition.
Basson, P.W. & Round, F.E. 1994. Intertidal diatom populations as indicators of the extent of the Kuwait oil spill. In: Feltkamp, E. & Krupp, F. (eds.), Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase II. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 297-300.
Besler, H. 1972. Klimaverhältnisse und klimamorphologische Zonierung der zentralen Namib (Südwestafrika). Stuttgart.
Boaden, P.J.S. & Seed, R. 1985. An introduction to coastal ecology. Chapman & Hall, New York.
Böer, B. & Warnken, J. 1992. Qualitative analysis of the coastal and inland vegetation of the Dawhat ad-Dafi and Dawhat al-Musallamiya region. In: Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase I. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 81-91.
Böer, B. 1994a. Status, environmental factors and recovery of intertidal and terrestrial vegetation between Ras az-Zaur and Abu Ali Island after the Gulf War oil spill. In: Feltkamp, E. & Krupp, F. (eds.), Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase II. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 229-253.
Böer, B. 1994b. Status and recovery of the intertidal vegetation after the 1991 Gulf War oil spill. In: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 166: 22-26. Frankfurt a.M.
Böer, B. 1996a. Increased soil temperatures in salt marshes and mangroves after the 1991 Gulf War oil spill. Fresenius Envir. Bull. 5: 442-447.
Böer, B. 1996b. Plants as soil indicators along the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf. Journal of Arid Environments 33: 417-423.
Böer, B. 1999. Ecosystems, anthropogenic impacts and habitat management techniques in Abu Dhabi. Paderborner Geographische Studien Bd.12. 141 pp.
Braun-Blanquet, J. 1964. Pflanzensoziologie. Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde, Wien.
Breed, C.S., Fryberger, S.G., Andrews, S., McCauley, C., Lennartz, F., Gebel, D. & Horstman, K. 1979. Regional studies of sand seas using Landsat (ERTS) imagery. In: McKee, E.D. (ed.), A study of global sand seas. USGS Professional Paper 1052: 305-381.
Cava, F. & Earle, S.A. 1993. The significance of sanctuaries and protected areas in the ROPME Sea Area with special reference to protection of the coral reef ecosystem. In: Scientific workshop on results of the R/V Mt. Mitchell cruise in the ROPME Sea area. Kuwait, 24-28 January 1993. Abstracts.
Chapman, R.W. 1978. Geology and Geomorphology. In: Al-Sayari, S.S. & Zötl, J. (eds.), Quaternari period in Saudi Arabia, Vol. , Springer, New York, p. 4-30.
Child, G. & Grainger, J. 1990. A plan to protect areas in Saudi Arabia, NCWCD publication, Riyadh.
Clark, R.B. 1992. Marine Pollution. 3rd edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Coles, S.L. & McCain J.C. 1989. The marine environment of the Arabian Gulf – Baseline information and management considerations. Proc. of workshop I on: The ecological imperatives for sustainable development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NCWCD, Riyadh.
Collenette, S. 1985. An illustrated guide to the flora of Saudi Arabia. Essex, Scorpion Publishing Ltd.
Coppejans, E. 1992. Report on macroalgal research in the Wildlife Sanctuary region. In: Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase I. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 102-107.


Dabbagh, R., Al Hinai, K.G. & Khan, M.A. 1998. Evaluation of the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) data for mapping paleo-drainage systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In: Alsharhan, A.S., Glennie, K.W., Whittle, G.L. & Kendall, C.G.S.C. (eds.), Quaternary deserts and climatic change. Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 483-493.
Dalyan, U., Harder, H. & Höpner, T. 1990. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in sediments and soils. Asystematic examination of physical and chemical conditions. III. Temperature. Erdöl, Kohle Erdgas Petrochemie 43: 435-437.
De Clerck, O. & Coppejans, E. 1994. The marine algae of the Gulf Sanctuary. In: Feltkamp, E. & Krupp, F. (eds.), Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase II. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 254-280.
Dincer, T., Al-Mugrain, A. & Zimmerman, V. 1973. Study of the infiltration and recharge through the sand dunes in arid zones with special references to the stable isotopes and thermonuclear tritium. Journal of Hydrology 23: 79-109.
Driskell, W.B., Fukuyama, A.K., Houghton, J.P., Lees, D.C., Shigenaka, G. & Mearns, A.J. 1993. Impacts on intertidal infauna: Exxon Valdez oil spill and cleanup. Proc. of int. oil spill conf., Florida 1993, p.355-361.
DVWK (ed.) 1996. Ermittlungen der Verdunstung von Land- und Wasserflächen. Merkblatt zur Wasserwirtschaft 238, Wirtschafts- und Verlagsgesellschaft Gas und Wasser mbh, Bonn.
Edgell, H.S. 1996. Salt tectonism in the Persian Gulf Basin. In: Alsop, G.I., Blundell, D.J. & Davison, I. (eds.), Salt tectonics. Geological Society Special Publication 100: 129-151.
El-Baz, F. & Al-Sarawi, M. 1996. Kuwait as an alluvial fan of a paleo-river. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 103: 49-59.
Ellenberg, H. 1972. Belastungen und Belastbarkeit von Ökosystemen. Tagungsbericht der Gesellschaft für Ökologie, Gießen, p. 19-26.
EKU Development (Entwicklungen) 2002. Oil skimming technology „SORBMOP“ – Oil behind a floating fence. Presentation at the International Conference SAFER SEAS, Brest, March 2002.
Evans, G., Schmidt, V., Bush, P. & H. Nelson 1969. Stratigraphy and geologic history of the sabkha, Abu Dhabi, Persian Gulf. Sedimentology 12: 145-159.
Evans, G. & Kirkham, A. 2002. The Abu Dhabi Sabkha. In: Barth, H.-J. & Böer, B. (eds.), Sabkha Ecosystems. Volume 1: The Arabian Peninsula and adjacent countries. Kluwer, Dordrecht. p. 7-20.
Fiege, D. 1992. Polychaeta of the intertidal zone in the Ras Az-Zawr - Marduma Bay Region. In: Krupp, F. (ed.), Establishment of a marine habitat and wildlife sanctuary for the Gulf Region, Final report for phase 1, Jubail, Frankfurt, 171-186.
Finke, L. 1994. Landschaftsölologie. Das Geographische Seminar. Westermann, Braunschweig, 232 pp.
Felber, H., Hötzl, H., Maurin, V., Moser, H., Rauert, W. & Zötl, J.G. 1978. Sea level fluctuations during the Quaternary period. In: Al-Sayari, S.S. & Zötl, J.G. (eds.), Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia. Springer, Wien, New York. p. 50-57.
Floodgate, G.D. 1994. Naturally induced changes in oil spilled in the vicinity of the sanctuary. In: Feltkamp, E. & Krupp, F. (eds.), Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase II. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 205-214.
Fryberger, S.G. & Dean, G. 1979. Dune forms and wind regimes. In: McKee, E.D. (ed.), A study of global sand seas. USGS Professional Paper, 1052: 137-170.
Fusey, P. & Oudot, J. 1984. Relative influence of physical removal and biodegradation in the depuration of petroleum contaminated seashore sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin 15:136-141.


Gleick, J. 1987. Chaos : Making a new science. Penguin Books, New York, 354 pp.
Golum, R. & Brus, E. 1980. Analysis of oil pollution in the Kuwait Action Plan Region. IMCO/UNEP Workshop on combating marine pollution from oil exploration, exploitation and transport in the KAP region. Bahrain.
Greenpeace 1992. The environmental legacy of the Gulf War, a Greenpeace report. Greanpeace International, Amsterdam. 41 pp.
Gundlach, E.R. & Hayes, M.O. 1981. Evolution de la pollution du littoral Breton par les hydrocarbures de la L’Amoco Cadiz entre Mars 1978 et Novembre 1979. Paris.
Gundlach, E.R., McCain, J.C. & Fadlallah, Y.H. 1993. Distribution of oil along the Saudi Arabian coastline (May/June 1991) as a result of the Gulf War oil spills. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22:93-96.
Harder, H., Kürzel-Seidel, B. & Höpner, T. 1991. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in sediments and soils. Asystematic examination of physical and chemical conditions. IV. Special aspect of nutrient demand. Erdöl Kohle Erdgas Petrochemie 44: 59-62.
Hastenrath, S. & Lamb, P.J. 1979. Climatic Atlas of the Indian Ocean, part 1. Surface climate and atmospheric circulation, University of Wisconsin Press.
Haude, W. 1954. Zur praktischen Bestimmung der aktuellen und potentiellen Evaporation und Evapotranspiration. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Wetterdienstes Bd.1 (8).
Hayes, M.O., Michel, J., Al-Mansi, A.M., Jensen, J.R., Narumalani, S., Aurand, D.V., Al-Momen, A.H. & Thayer G.W. 1993. Distribution of oil from the Gulf War spill within intertidal habitats – one year later. Proc. of int. oil spill conf., Florida 1993, p.373-379.
Hayes, M.O., Michel, J., Montello, T.M., Aurand, D.V., Al-Mansi, A.M., Al-Momen, A.H., Sauer, T.C. & Thayer G.W. 1993. Distribution and weathering of shoreline oil one year after the Gulf War oil spill. In: Final report of the scientific workshop on results of the R/V Mt. Mitchell cruise in the ROPME Sea area. Kuwait, 24-28 January 1993. Annex IV: 61-73.
Hawkins, S.J & Jones, H.D. 1994. Rocky shores. Marine field course guide No. 1. Immel Publishing.
Hayes, M.O., Michel, J., Montello, T.M., Aurand, D.V., Sauer, T.C., Al-Mansi & Al-Momen, A.H. 1995. Distribution and weathering of oil from the Iraq-Kuwait conflict oil spill within intertidal habitats – two years later. Proc. of int. oil spill conf., California 1995, p.443-451.
Hayes, O.M., Aurand, D.V., Sauer, T.C., Al-Mansi, A. & Al-Momen, A.H. 1995. Distribution and weathering of oil from the Iraq-Kuwait conflict oil spill within intertidal habitats - two years later. In: Proceedings of the 1995 International Oil Spill Conference, Feb. 27 - Mar.2. 1995, Long Beach, California, p.443-451.
Henning, I. & Henning, D. 1984. Die klimatologische Wasserbilanz der Kontinente. Schöning, Paderborn.
Hoff, R.Z., Shigenaka, G. & Henry, C.B. 1993. Salt marsh recovery from a crude oil spill: vegetation, oil weathering, and response. Proc. of int. oil spill conf., Florida 1993, p. 307-311.
Hoffmann, L. 1994. Distribution and status of intertidal Blue-green Algal mats. In: Feltkamp, E. & Krupp, F. (eds.), Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase II. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 281-296.
Hoffmann, L. 1996. Recolonisation of the intertidal flats by microbial mats after the Gulf War oil spill. In: Krupp, F., Abuzinada, A.H. & Nader, I.A. (eds.), A Marine Wildlife Sanctuary for the Arabian Gulf. Environmental Research and Conservation Following the 1991 Gulf War Oil Spill. NCWCD, Riyadh and Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt a.M. p. 96-115.
Höpner, T. 2001. Oil pollution status report, October 2001. Unpublished report.
Höpner, T., Yousef, M., Berthe-Corti, L., Felzmann, H., Struck, H. & Al-Thukair, A. 1996. Cyanobacterial mats on oil polluted sediments – start of a promising self-remediation process? In: Krupp, F., Abuzinada, A.H. & Nader, I.A. (eds.), A Marine Wildlife Sanctuary for the Arabian Gulf. Environmental Research and Conservation Following the 1991 Gulf War Oil Spill. NCWCD, Riyadh and Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt a.M. p. 85-95.
Höpner, T. 1984. The off-shore oil biodegradation capacity of the Persian Gulf (An assessment from Literature data). In: Ebtekar, T. (ed.), Proc. of the 1st int. conf. on the impact of oil spill in the Persian Gulf. May 20-27. University of Theran, p. 60-71.
Höpner, T. 1991. The oil desaster in the Gulf: Interim balance, status, measures, prognoses. Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung 6:1.
Höpner, T., Felzmann, H. & Struck, H. 1992. Oil pollution status report (January/February). In: Krupp, F. (ed.), Establishment of a marine habitat and wildlife sanctuary for the Gulf Region, Final report for phase 1, Jubail, Frankfurt, 52-80.
Höpner, T., Felzmann, H. & Struck, H. 1993. The nature and extent of oil pollutions on Saudi Arabian beaches. The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 18: 243-255.
Höpner, T., Harder, H. Kiesewetter, K., Dalyan, U., Kutsche-Schmietenknop, I. & Teigelkamp, B. 1989. Biochemical aspects of hydrocarbon biodegradation in sediments and soils. In: Gerstl, Z. Chen, Y., Mingelgrin, U. & Yaron, B. (eds.), Toxic organic chemicals in porous media. Ecological studies 73: 251-272.
Hötzl, H. & Zötl, J.G. 1984. Hydrogeology. In: Jado, A.R. & Zötl, J.G. (eds.), Quaternary period in Saudi Arabia. Springer, Wien, New York, Vol. 2, p.246-274.
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Jones, D.A., Watt, I. & Woodhouse, T.D. 1994. Surveys and management of the intertidal habitat. In: Feltkamp, E. & Krupp, F. (eds.), Establishment of a marine habitat and wildlife sanctuary for the Gulf Region, Final report for phase 2, Jubail, Frankfurt, 374-405.
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Plaza, J. & Al-Sanei, M. 1995. Biological assessment of the oil spill clean-up sites in Dawhat ad Dafi and Dawhat al-Musallamiya. In: Krupp, F. & Fleming, R. (eds.), Establishment of a Marina Habitat and Wildlife Sanctuary for the Gulf Region. Final report of phase III. Jubail, Frankfurt a.M. p. 45-62.
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Richmond, M.D. 1996. Status of subtidal biotopes of the Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary with special reference to  soft-substratum communities. In: Krupp, F., Abuzinada, A.H. & Nader, I.A. (eds.), A Marine Wildlife Sanctuary for the Arabian Gulf. Environmental Research and Conservation Following the 1991 Gulf War Oil Spill. NCWCD, Riyadh and Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt a.M. p. 159-176.
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Internet 1: American Petroleum Institute. Oil spill prevention and response. 1999, http://          www. api.org/oilspills/weather.htm
Internet 2: NOAA Long term monitoring programme. 2000,    http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/bat/10years.html
Orb View-2 Satellite image Arabian Peninsula:
            http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/viewrecord?3240

 

 

 

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